Article from ROAPE Volume 24 Number 71
1996 Zambian Elections
On 18 November 2020 presidential and parliamentary elections were held for the second time under Zambia's Third Republic. The first elections, in October 1991, ended the unbroken grip on power enjoyed by the United National Independence Party (UNIP) since 1964 and returned the country to a multi-party political system after 18 years as a one-party state. UNIP was heavily defeated by the MMD (Movement for Multiparty Democracy) and Kenneth Kaunda, the country's president since 1964, was replaced by Frederick Chiluba. The peaceful nature of the changeover in 1991 was applauded locally and internationally. There was a sense of optimism about the country's democratic prospects. Zambia was widely held up as a model of successful democratic transition and aid flowed in, partly in support of the democratic experiment and partly because of the new regime's commitment to economic liberalisation and structural adjustment. In some cases donor support was specifically earmarked for the promotion of good government and the encouragement of civic education.