The Review of African Political Economy - examining the politics of imperialism;
development; agrarian, popular and democratic struggles; class, gender and social justice
[ Important Note! This collection of links was compiled by Chris Allen in 1999, and is now out of date.
We retain this page as a historical record of where information was to be found on the web back in the early days of this century. ]
This guide is the first of a series we intend to publish in forthcoming numbers of the Review, now that internet access is easier for activists and scholars based in Africa.
In selecting sites and documents for inclusion, I have reflected the main areas of interest of the Review, and have not attempted an overview of the full range of internet material available, much of which is devoted to travel and tourism, business concerns, history, or sport (a search on Algeria + football, for example, produced nearly 4000 sites and documents). I have also concentrated far more on sites and documents specifically concerned with North Africa than on general sites which have a north African component; these often contain the same limited set of links. I have also not attempted to cover material on Egypt, as this requires a separate guide.
In the lists below, bold type has been used to identify themes, certain key sites and authors, to make reference easier.
Material on the Maghreb is often to be found on sites on the Middle East in general, though these will normally treat the area as minor and peripheral. Of these, probably the richest is the Middle East Network Information Center site (MENIC), at menic.utexas.edu/menic. This is arranged by region and country, with collections of documents, press reports etc taken from internet news groups; the most useful pages are under Politics, News, or Society, but several others are worth exploring. A search facility is available, and is worth using, as a remarkable amount of material is hidden away - as it is in the archive of MSANews (news.mynet.net) which includes press reports and documents from Islamist and other organisations that are otherwise (now) hard to find. Sometimes worth consulting is the Encyclopaedia of the Orient, though the bulk of entries are short, and not well written (i-cias.com).
News sources include the Maghreb Weekly Monitor, mainly economic news, but some politics and social material, mostly very brief (www.north-africa.com/news.htm); and ArabicNews.com, which provides daily stories on North Africa, without attribution; there is an archive, but it appears to be impossible to gain access to this from their main page, at www.arabicnews.com. General news sources, such as Africanews (www.africanews.org), IRIN (www.reliefweb.int/IRIN) and the Washington Post (www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/africa.htm) have archives of recent reports, as well as (in some cases) links to other sources in individual states. Regular commentary, from a US perspective, can be found at the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs site, which has a large archive of short reports, with a search facility, going back to 1982 (www.washington-report.org/html/backissues.html), and at the North Africa Journal (www.north-africa.com/one.htm), although much of what it publishes is available only to paying subscribers, rather than free online (a characteristic of many of the news sources on francophone Africa). For standard information and links on the government and politics of individual states, see the three standard political sites: Elections around the world (www.stm.it/elections/election.htm); Political resources on the net - good for parties and NGO links (www.stm.it/politic); and Governments on the WWW (www.gksoft.com/govt/en).
Materials on human rights are covered in the individual country lists below, as is much of the material on women. It is worth visiting Le Maghreb des droits de l'homme, a site for human rights organisations in the Maghreb and Europe, with links to organisations, news and other (short) reports on human rights abuses (rather than substantial analyses), while UN human rights materials summarised from a variety of general reports are available in 'For the Record' in the Human Rights Internet site, from 1997 on, at www.hri.ca. There is a a general guide to recent literature on women in the Middle East, by Ragai Makar at www.lib.umich.edu/libhome/Area.Programs/Near.East/makar65.html, and a small but useful collection of sites and documents on women in the Maghreb at women3rdworld.about.com/culture/women3rdworld/library/weekly/aa072499.htm,
Several papers exist online on foreign policy and security issues, all from a non-Maghreb stance, such as a 1996 paper from the West European Union's Institute of Security Studies on security policy in North Africa (www.weu.int/institute/chaillot/chai25e.htm), and a similar paper from the US Army War College's journal, at carlisle-www.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/98autumn/carlson.htm. For current US policy, see www.usis-israel.org.il/publish/armscontrol/archive/1999/february/def0225c.shtml, and on the European Union's Maghreb policy, a recent paper by Peter Schlotter (of the Peace Research Institute, Frankfurt), at www.hsfk.de/deu/pub/prifrep/prif5299.htm.
More scholarly items include Middle East Policy, a US journal oriented to current affairs; the current issue is available complete, plus an archive of selected articles, several on north Africa (www.mepc.org/journal). Listings of recent articles on North Africa prepared by the Library of the Moyshe Dayan Centre for Middle East African studies can be found at www.dayan.org). The majority of the papers from the third and fourth Nordic Conferences on Middle East studies are available, but relatively few of these are on the Maghreb (see www.hf-fak.uib.no/institutter/smi/paj, and www.hf-fak.uib.no/smi/nsm/oslo98.html). The ILO offer a substantial paper on migration from the Maghreb to Europe (www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/migrant/papers/migmagh/index.htm) and there is a discussion of civil society in the Mediterranean, with a focus on North Africa, from Development at www.sidint.org/publications/development/41-1e.htm.
By contrast to its neighbours, Algeria has a wealth of online material, the result of the presence of Algerians overseas, and of US and European concern with events since 1991. Four major sites focus on these events, providing both news and commentary:
1. World Algerian Action Coalition (www.waac.org) . This site, based in the US, aims to provide 'balanced' and 'unbiased' information, and is searchable. The most useful section is 'articles and reports', which include materials reflecting official views, news features (notably on the economy), human rights materials and scholarly analyses (although these are provided by only a handful of authors). A section on 'elections' has data and analysis for the 1999 elections and referendum. In both cases the bulk of the material is unique to this site, and recent (mainly 1998 or 1999). Also valuable are a historical background section covering 1962-92 (footnoted, with bibliography); news summaries (unsourced); a short documents section including official and legal material (such as the Family Code), and demographic and sociological material.
2. Algeria Watch International (members.tripod.com/~AlgeriaWatch) is also US-based, but more campaign oriented, with an extensive collection of links to human rights and related organisations, and to news sources. It includes an archive of articles and reports, overlapping very little with the site above, and including materials on human rights issues, the economy, and a bibliography. It is however very slow to load (and reload).
3. INCORE provides many individual country guides to online resources on ethnic and related conflicts, all well organised and with helpful commentaries. This one (www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/cds/countries/algeria.html) would be an excellent starting point, covering press sources, discussion and news groups, human rights and other NGO materials, and some scholarly commentary (though very far from all that is available - see below). The last of these categories includes several articles by Rod Skilbeck, who has more material at: www.netspace.net.au/~rod/alg, and a bibliography at www.mq.edu.au/Mec/biblio.html).
4. Algeria Watch (www.algeria-watch.de) is a German site (with a French version available), that includes a considerable number of shorter commentaries, often drawn from online sources such as periodicals, and focussing mainly on repression and violence. The links collection is very useful, with a concentration on the media, parties and human rights.
Lesser sites that collate useful resources include two that concentrate on Algerian websites, classifying them crudely into a few categories: Algeriainfo (www.algeriainfo.com.), and www.algerianetwork.com. The MENIC site is good on the Algeria press, and on the energy sector (though this is somewhat better served by www.fe.doe.gov/international/algeria.html). Sometimes useful are Adminet (which has material on the 1995 and 1997 elections, and good media links), and the Spanish human rights site Derechos, which brings together human rights information and critiques from the major sources, and has other political commentary (at: www.derechos.org/human-rights/mena/alg.html). Most Algerian parties that have sites can be found on one of these; but the FIS site at www.fisalgeria.org appears not be functioning.
Other than these there are several smaller document collections, and individual online documents, many making important contributions to an understanding of events in the nineties. Focus on Algeria is a new online newsletter, reviewing events and issues (including women, in the January 1999 issue), sited at the University of Michigan, also with links and recommended reading (www.umich.edu/~iinet/cmenas/algeria/welcome.html). Mario's Cyberspace Station (mprofaca.cro.net/mainmenu.html), a site usually devoted to intelligence services, has a section on killings in Algeria, which is very slow to load. The International Crisis Group, a private conflict-resolution organisation, has an Algeria project, which has a handful of reports in French, mainly on the April 1999 elections, at www.crisisweb.org/projects/algeria, while Le Monde diplomatique published ten articles on Algeria in 1999, and seven in 1998, all of which can be accessed at www.monde-diplomatique.fr (then look for the index by country). A 1995 UNHCR report on refugees from Algeria (www.unhcr.ch/refworld/country/cdr/cdrdza.htm) includes a very helpful account of the main political organisations active in the early nineties, as well as a political and human rights assessment of 1993/95. Compare this with the report on the European Parliamentary mission at about the same time (only in Italian, on a Green site: www.verdi.it/giovaniv/algeria/missione.htm).
Official US policy and other statements can be found on the Department of State website (www.state.gov), where the simplest approach is to use the site's search mechanism, locating both copies of standard items like the annual human rights report, or Economic policy and trade practices, and a range of official statements, including the 1996 policy statement (www.state.gov/www/regions/nea/960416.html). This can be supplemented by the edited text of a 1998 forum between W B Quandt and US Ambassador Hume (www.mepc.org/journal/9902_hume.html); a summary of a 1998 speech by the Algerian Ambassador the US on Algerian politics and the 'battle against terrorism', at www.washingtoninstitute.org/watch/Policywatch/policywatch1998/298.htm, and a short piece on 'terrorism' in Algeria, by former US ambassador Ulric Haynes (www.his.com/~council/Haynes.htm). The Library of Congress has produced an 'area handbook' for Algeria, reflecting US concerns and prejudices, but offering lengthy treatment of major political themes, history, the economy, and society; it is searchable (lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/dztoc.html). The bibliography is useful, and is supplemented by the online one at Cornell, which is regularly updated and covers events and materials from 1991, particularly on Islam and conflict (at: www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast); it has a long list of websites, without commentary, at the end.
More extended critical analyses are available from individual scholars (see below) and from human rights organisations, including reports from the UN Human Rights Committee (in the form of an 'Eminent Panel' report on the situation in 1998, at www.un.org/NewLinks/dpi2007/contents.htm); there is a summary, plus two press releases from Human Rights Watch (on press freedom, killings) on the APIC site (www.africapolicy.org/docs98/alg9811.htm). Other analyses from human rights NGOs, include Human Rights Watch's evidence to the Eminent Panel, at www.hrw.org/reports98/algeria/ALGER988-02.htm, reports from Amnesty International (including their 1998 study Algeria: civilian population caught in a spiral of violence, at www.amnesty.org/ailib/countries/indx528.htm, and the 1999 Algeria: 'Disappearances' - the wall of silence begins to crumble, at www.amnesty.org/ailib/aipub/1999/MDE/52800199.htm), and by the French FIDH, whose Algeria page contains many short communiques, and three long reports, two on the position of women (www.fidh.imaginet.fr/actu/algerie/algerie.htm). The Arab Human Rights Netcenter (arabrights.org) collates reports on human rights, but its Algerian material so far consists very largely of links to WAAC. The Committee to Protect Journalists has a recent report on press freedom, from www.cpj.org/zmideast/AlgeriaSR.html, while the Digital Freedom Network has current reports and an large archive of materials on that topic at www.dfn.org/Voices/Mideast/mideast.html.
A valuable overview piece on women's rights, from the International Women's Rights Action Watch site, can be found at www.igc.apc.org/iwraw/publications/countries/algeria.html. For the official line, try the government report to the UN Commmitte on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) at www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/algeria.htm. Documents responding to this exist, and can be found in the WAAC site, or at www.un.org/News/Press/docs/1999/ - see wom1079, wom1080 and wom1085. An 'alternative report' on women, discrimination and violence in Algeria is located on www.ras.eu.org/maghreb-ddh/actualite/fidh-femmes.html [document removed?]. There is also a small collection of press features on women in Algerian politics and the 90's violence, at women3rdworld.about.com/culture/women3rdworld/library/weekly/aa092299.htm, and an interview (1998) between the Algerian MP Khalida Messaoudi (who considers herself a feminist) and the President of the Liberal international, on women and Islam in Algeria (www.worldlib.org/li/executive/interlaken/twilight.html). A more scholarly conference paper (1995) by Nelli Kopola, drawn from work for her PhD at Stockholm, on interaction between women's political action and official conceptions of 'women' is at www.hf-fak.uib.no/institutter/smi/paj/Kopola.html.
Among the lesser scholarly pieces, several are concerned with the role of Islam, including a 1996 article by Rod Skilbeck critical of interpretation of conflict in Algeria as being between traditional and modernist strands in Islam (www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/osctrad.htm), one by Hamou Amirouche from Middle East Policy (www.mepc.org/journal/9801_amirouche.html), with a overview of 1945-92, but its main focus on islamism and democracy (also to be found on the WAAC site); and a comparative essay by Thomas Eriksen on FIS and a Norwegian anti-EU movement (www.uio.no/~geirthe/Counterreactions.html). Others explore the supposed threat of 'fundamentalist' Islam; see studies by James Phillips (www.heritage.org/library/categories/forpol/bg1060.html), Graham Fuller (www.rand.org/publications/MR/MR733) and Peter St John's study for the Canadian Security Intelligence Service (www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/eng/comment/com65e.html). These are more revealing of North American security concerns than they are of Algerian political dynamics. For the latter, try the important extended briefing on the 1990s by George Joffe for the Royal Institute of International Affairs (www.riia.org/briefingpapers/bp48.html), which is complemented by a political chronology by Anthony Cordesman (www.csis.org/mideast/reports/alger_bk.html).
Also valuable are pieces by W B Quandt on US interests in and policy on Algeria (www.people.virginia.edu/~wbq8f/pivotal.html) Lahouari Addi (msanews.mynet.net/Scholars/Addi), John Entelis (msanews.mynet.net/Scholars/Entelis/dakhili.html), and Hugh Roberts (www.merip.org/mer/mer209/algelec.htm, which is on the 1997 elections). Roberts edits the new Algerian Studies journal, whose site provides abstracts of articles (www.frankcass.com/jnls/alg.htm). There is, finally, an overview piece from the early nineties by Robert Irish, a graduate student relying heavily on press reports, at psirus.sfsu.edu/IntRel/IRJournal/fa1994/irish.html [site down when last checked - try www.sfsu.edu/~ir]. It is more difficult to find material by Algerian scholars, though the MSANews site can be searched by country, and contains many shorter commentaries from Algerian and other sources (msanews.mynet.net), and there is other material in the sites mentioned at the beginning of this section.
Most of this material is concerned with the period from 1988 to 1997. More recent events, including the presidential elections, are covered in the general sites mentioned above, with more extended commentary in the following: 1998 hearings by the US House of Representatives Committee on International Relations Subcommittee on Africa with evidence from officials, Human Rights Watch, and Mary-Jane Deeb (commdocs.house.gov/committees/intlrel/hfa47503.000/hfa47503_0.HTM); the Policy Watch series, which includes includes a paper by Mary-Jane Deeb on the presidential elections (PW 381), at www.washingtoninstitute.org/watch/Policywatch/1999.htm; on the involvement of the St Egidio Community in the peace process (www.usip.org/pubs/pworks/smock20/chap3_20.html); on the international implications of the Algerian crisis (formerly at www.georgetown.edu/sfs/programs/ccas/algeria.htm, now www.ccasonline.org [document removed?]); and on human rights and the 1999 presidential elections (summary at www.africapolicy.org/docs99/alg9904.htm, full version at www.hrw.org/hrw/backgrounder/mena/algeria-election-0499.htm).
Anthony Cordesman has also produced a long study of the economy in the nineties, at www.csis.org/mideast/reports/algeria1.pdf, to which one can add a paper by Fred von der Mehden on the impact of political, economic social and religious trends in the Middle East on oil supply and pricing, which includes a case study on Algeria (riceinfo.rice.edu/projects/baker/publications/persiangulf/islam/islam.html), and a report on the agri-food sector, intended for Canadian businesses (atn-riae.agr.ca/public/htmldocs/e2571.htm).
Apart from the general Maghreb sites, there is remarkably little on Morocco available online. The French Embassy provides a long classified collection of Moroccan websites (www.ambafrance-ma.org/public/webmaroc.htm), and a review of the Moroccan press (much of which can be reached through the site itself); the latter covers most of 1999. Other collections of links can be found at www.alakhawayn.ma/morocco, on 'Political resources on the net' (good for media links), on Marocnet (www.marocnet.net.ma/liens) which concentrates on business and the economy, and at www.leb.net/~hajeri/morocco.html, a personal site. The Morocco Channel has links, mainly to the media, and access (on payment) to press reports, mostly from Maghreb Confidential (www.africaintelligence.com/unes/p_une_MCE.asp). Even the few political party sites (reached through those just listed) contain little extended or critical commentary on Moroccan politics; see for example the discussion of the 1997 elections on the opposition USFP site (users.mtds.com/~usfp [site removed?]).
For criticism, one has to go to the sites on Western Sahara and Polisario, such as the excellent collection by the support group ARSO, at www.arso.org, which includes UN materials, documents on human rights, women etc, and bibliographical resources. Amnesty International materials (mainly on the Western Sahara issue) are at www.amnesty.org/ailib/countries/indx529.htm, while there is a pro-Moroccan site on Western Sahara, with a nationalist account of Moroccan history, at infoweb.magi.com/~morocco/saharah.html. Despite its title, Morocco Liberty (www.abbc.com/morocco) is very largely anti-zionist, including (among other dross) the 'Protocols of the Elders of Zion'. Other documents of political interest include a short report on a 1999 visit to discuss political issues (including Western Sahara) from the North Atlantic Assembly's Mediterranean Special Group (www.naa.be/publications/trip/as79gsm993-morocco.html), a brief discussion of the role of Islamism (www.washington-report.org/backissues/0196/9601016.html) and two comments on the political situation after the death of King Hassan (PW 403 and 405 at www.washingtoninstitute.org/watch/Policywatch/1999.htm).
Other than human rights materials, there are few individual documents online. The UNDP mission in Morocco produced a report on human resource development in 1997 (www.pnud.org.ma/dh97/dh97htm [site removed?]) and has links to extensive economic information and statistics on its site. A long, semi-official paper on 'Natural resource aspects of sustainable development can be found at www.un.org/esa/agenda21/natlinfo/countr/morocco/natur.htm, while there is a pdf file on what is quaintly called 'economic freedom' in Morocco at http://www.heritage.org/heritage/library/categories/forpol/econ_index/... [site removed?] (from the Heritage Foundation).
A guide to the legal status of muslim women in Morocco , by the academic lawyer Fadela Sebti, can be found at www.techno.net.ma/femmes; see also the page on the work of Fatima Mernissi maintained by MSA News (msanews.mynet.net/Scholars/Mernissi). Other material on women can be found in International Women's Rights Action Watch's overview report on women's rights (www.igc.apc.org/iwraw/publications/countries/morocco.html), which is however rather thin and poorly documented (unlike its Algerian report). For a more critical account, see the 1996 parallel report to CEDAW by women's organisations and other NGOs (magnet.undp.org/Docs/gov/arab/Engcedaw.htm). For an anodyne presentation on women's rights in Morocco (elite Moroccan women talking to Mrs Clinton) try usinfo.state.gov/usa/womenusa/hilround.htm, and for a paper from 'Development' 42,1 (1999), on women and reproductive health in Morocco, go to www.sidint.org/sid-wid/forumbg05.htm. A 1994 paper on the exposure of Moroccan adolescents to the media, and their use of images derived from the media stresses gender issues (www.uslink.net/~ddavis/mosque.html), while a short report from a 1997 OECD workshop is in part on women entrepreneurs in Morocco (www.oecd.org/dsti/sti/industry/smes/act/almoro.htm).
Tunisia, too, suffers from too many uncritical collections of links that reflect tourist, business or official perspectives, such as ArabNet, Tunisia Online (www.tunisiaonline.com), or the similar but more clumsy sites at www.tunisie.com, or www.tunisieinfo.com. It is probably simpler to use the standard general collections, from MENIC, or Political resources on the net. Official material on Tunisian foreign policy is collected at http://www.tunisiaworld.com/ [site removed?], and a spin-doctored account of the economy occurs on www.euromed.com/tun1.html). The media, the bulk of which maintain sites with excerpts from recent issues, are also uncritical, and one must have recourse to the international press, notably Le Monde diplomatique. The October 1999 edition has a valuable piece ('Les deux visages de la dictature'), and earlier articles cover human rights, media freedom, and women (www.monde-diplomatique.fr). For the record of a forum on the recent presidential elections, convened by Middle East Policy Council, try www.mepc.org/forums/special/9910.htm
The most informative sites are those with a human rights focus. Amnesty International (www.amnesty.org/ailib/countries) provides numerous press releases, and two key reports, from 1997 (A widening circle of repression) and 1998 (Human rights defenders in the line of fire). The Derechos site has a number of standard human rights materials (www.derechos.org/human-rights/mena/tunisia.html), while two opposition party sites offer exposes - although neither appears to have been updated since 1997. Ezzeitouna has documents on prisons and on corruption, plus links to opposition organisations and NGOs (www.ezzeitouna.org), while Annahdha covers human rights abuses (www.ezzeitouna.org/annahdha/ANNAHDHA.HTM). Easily the most extensive human rights site is Free Tunisia (www.angelfire.com/tn/freetunisia). This clear and well organised site has links to opposition and human rights organisations, and to a wide variety of (mainly short) articles and reports on media freedom and human rights, plus some political commentary, such as Chris Alexander's 1997 piece 'Authoritarianism and civil society in Tunisia', from Middle East Report, (www.merip.org). Other, lesser, resources include a Digitial Freedom Network site on press freedom, with current reports and an archive (dfn.org/Voices/Mideast/mideast.html), a briefing from Lawyers Committee on Human Rights, (www.lchr.org/l2l/tunisia.htm), a few collated reports at the Arab Human Rights Netcenter (arabrights.org), and the regular annual reports from Human Rights Watch (www.hrw.org/hrw/worldreport99/mideast/tunisia.html) and Amnesty (www.amnesty-usa.org/ailib/aireport/ar99/mde30.htm). Both of the latter URLs are for the most recent reports. A shabby pro-government site set up to deflect Amnesty's criticisms can be inspected at www.rights-tunisia.org.
Other material is sparse. There are two documents on women: the World Bank provides a collection of data at www.worldbank.org/gender/info/tunisia.html, and CEDAW's observations on the 1995 official reports on discrimination against women are at www1.umn.edu/humanrts/cedaw/cedaw-tunisia.htm. The Tunisian Government report to UNESCO (1997) on implementation of the convention on economic, social and cultural rights is at www.hri.ca/fortherecord1997/documentation/tbodies/e-1990-6-add14.htm. The IMF site has a recent report on 'financial transparency practices' - i.e. financial data dissemination, fiscal and monetary policy transparency, regulation of the securities market and banking supervision - at www.imf.org/external/np/rosc/tun, and there is a short article on NGOs and ecotourism promotion at ag.arizona.edu/OALS/ALN/aln43/tunisia.html
There does not appear to be a comprehensive collection of Libyan links, or of online materials. The MENIC page for Libya is a good starting point, as is the Libya page at Columbia (www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/indiv/area/MiddleEast/Libya.html), and many of the standard sources will provide limited access to official materials and sites, the media, and economic data and commentary. Libyaweb (www.libyaweb.com) has a limited set of links, and (unsourced) news summaries for 1999, while the Libyan Mission to the UN is good for official documents and news (www.undp.org/missions/libya). The 'area handbook' for Libya (at lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/lytoc.html) reflects US perceptions, and is dated, but it is still useful, and can be contrasted with 'Find out more about Libya' (www.geocities.com/Athens/8644 [wrong link?]). This latter site includes excerpts from Green Book, and many speeches and statements by Ghadaffi, as well as Libyan statements on the Lockerbie crash and subsequent sanctions and trial proposals. A more balanced site is provided by the Institut Jamahiriya d'études et documentation (rafale.worldnet.net/~ijed), which has many official documents (including some on Lockerbie and sanctions), material on the economy and demography of Libya, links to oppositional groups, and an extensive bibliography, albeit restricted to material in French.
Much more on Lockerbie can be found at the Lockerbie Incident page, set up by a law student without much interest in Libya itself (www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/5260). Although tending to be mostly on the crash and subsequent activity, it does have some background and contextual material. A 1998 study of public opinion in the US towards sanctions on Libya can be found at www.pipa.org/OnlineReports [site removed?], while an assessment of the impact of sanctions exists at www.iie.com/HOTOPICS/SANCTION/Libya3.htm (as part of a larger Institute for International Economics study of sanctions). Libya is also accused of involvement in the development of weapons of mass destruction; for a speech from the prosecution, see a report to the US House of Representatives from the Taskforce on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare, at www.cdn-friends-icej.ca/isreport/taskforce.html.
Human rights issues are dealt with most comprehensively on the Sijill site (www.members.tripod.com/~sijill), which draws together documents from the UN, US, Amnesty and Libyan NGOs, and has materials on the security services and on abductions, as well as links to discussion groups and news sources. A few more documents can be found on members.aol.com/libya4ever/MansurKikhia.html, and on the National Front for the Salvation of Libya site, which has two items, a political programme, and a list of 'political murders' (www.nfsl-libya.com [site removed?]).
Links last checked/updated: 24 Apr 2000 / No attempt made to keep these links current - see opening comment