Article from ROAPE Volume 11 Number 29
Land/Liberation: SA Movements/Agrarian Ques. 1920s-60s
How national movements responded to rural struggles from the 1920s to the 1960s, what attention they devoted to rural mobilisation, and how their perceptions and efforts altered over time. Despite wars of conquest, the Land Acts of 1913 and 1936 and various forms of expropriation and exploitation visited on SA peasants, labour tenants, farm labourers and migrant workers, the agrarian question has not been accorded the theoretical or practical attention it needs. For all the resistance and unrest in places like Zululand, Transkei, Ciskei, Sekukuniland and other rural areas, the nationally organised movements failed to provide a lead and so lost an historic opportunity. The article evaluates debates about the agrarian question within the ANC (African National Congress), AAC (All African Convention), NEUM (Non-European Unity Movement), CP (Conservative Party)SA, ICU (Industrial and Commercial Workers Union), CATA (Cape African Teachers Association), the Transkei Bungha, and TOB (Transkei Organised Bodies).